|Terms & Properties|
Concept Unique Identifier (CUI): C0026237
NCI Thesaurus Code: C13258 (see NCI Thesaurus info)
Semantic Type: Cell Component
NCIt Definition: Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Mitochondria contain distinctive ribosomes, transfer RNAs, amino acyl t-RNA synthetases, and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus for many essential messenger RNAs. Mitochondria consist of two sets of membranes, a smooth continuous outer coat and an inner membrane arranged in tubules or more often in folds that form platelike double membranes (cristae). Mitochondria are the principal energy source of the cell and contains the cytochrome enzymes of terminal electron transport and the enzymes of the citric acid cycle, fatty acid oxidation, and oxidative phosphorylation. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP.
GO Definition: A semiautonomous, self replicating organelle that occurs in varying numbers, shapes, and sizes in the cytoplasm of virtually all eukaryotic cells. It is notably the site of tissue respiration. [GOC:giardia, ISBN:0198506732]
NCI-GLOSS Definition: Small structures in a cell that are found in the cytoplasm (fluid that surrounds the cell nucleus). Mitochondria make most of the energy for the cell and have their own genetic material that is different from the genetic material found in the nucleus. Many diseases are caused by mutations (changes) in the DNA of mitochondria. Mitochondria are cell organelles.
CSP Definition: self-replicating organelles found in cytoplasm bound by two membranes, the inner one folded into the interior as a series of projections; they are the principal sites of energy generation resulting from the oxidation of food, and contain the enzymes of the Krebs and fatty acid cycles and the respiratory pathway; they contain DNA and RNA for independent replication.
MSH Definition: Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
UWDA Definition: Membranous cytoplasmic organelle the interior of which is subdivided by cristae.
FMA Definition: Membranous cytoplasmic organelle the interior of which is subdivided by cristae.
Synonyms & Abbreviations: (see Synonym Details)
|Mitochondrial structure (cell structure)|
|Mitochondrion (cell structure)|
External Source Codes:
|NCI Thesaurus Code||C13258 (see NCI Thesaurus info)|
|AN||A 11 qualif except /cytol; /genet permitted; coord with organ /metab (IM) but not also organ /ultrastruct for metab studies, coord with organ /ultrastruct (IM) for morphol studies: TN 126; mitochondria of vasc or smooth musc tissue goes under MITOCHONDRIA, MUSCLE & do not coord with MUSCLE, SMOOTH or MUSCLE, SMOOTH, VASCULAR unless particularly discussed & then probably only NIM||MSH|
|AQL||CH CL DE EN GE IM ME MI PA PH PS RE SE TR UL VI||MSH|
|AUTHORITY||Bloom & Fawcett 1994:22, Nomina Anatomica 89:H10||FMA|
|GO_COMMENT||Some anaerobic or microaerophilic organisms (e.g. Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia intestinalis and several Microsporidia species) do not have mitochondria, and contain mitochondrion-related organelles (MROs) instead, called mitosomes or hydrogenosomes, very likely derived from mitochondria. To annotate gene products located in these mitochondrial relics in species such as Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia intestinalis or others, please use GO:0032047 'mitosome' or GO:0042566 'hydrogenosome'. (See PMID:24316280 for a list of species currently known to contain mitochondrion-related organelles.)||GO|
|HN||MITOCHONDRIAL CONTRACTION was heading 1969-96 (was see under MITOCHONDRIA 1975, was Prov 1969-74)||MSH|
|PM||MITOCHONDRIAL CONTRACTION was heading 1975-96 (see under MITOCHONDRIA 1975)||MSH|
|SOS||A cytoplasmic organelle of eukaryotic cells, enclosed by a double membrane. The inner membrane forms cristae and contains numerous small spheres attached by stalks on the inner surface. The components of the respiratory chain and the mechanism for ATP synthesis are part of the inner membrane. Major metabolic pathways involved in the oxidation of carbohydrates, lipids, and amino acids, and special biosynthetic pathways involving urea and heme synthesis are located in the mitochondrial matrix space. Mitochondria may have a role in the maintenance of cytoplasmic CA2+ levels. Mitochondria also contain a specific DNA containing genetic information for some of the mitochondrial proteins, and the biochemical equipment for limited protein synthesis.||AOD|
Additional Concept Data: (none)