|Terms & Properties|
Concept Unique Identifier (CUI): C0009170
NCI Thesaurus Code: C80153 (see NCI Thesaurus info)
Semantic Type: Pharmacologic Substance
Semantic Type: Hazardous or Poisonous Substance
Semantic Type: Organic Chemical
NCIt Definition: A tropane alkaloid with central nervous systems (CNS) stimulating and local anesthetic activity. Cocaine binds to the dopamine, serotonin, and norepinephrine transport proteins and inhibits the re-uptake of dopamine, serotonin, and norepinephrine into pre-synaptic neurons. This leads to an accumulation of the respective neurotransmitters in the synaptic cleft and may result in increased postsynaptic receptor activation. The mechanism of action through which cocaine exerts its local anesthetic effects is by binding to and blocking the voltage-gated sodium channels in the neuronal cell membrane. By stabilizing neuronal membranes, cocaine inhibits the initiation and conduction of nerve impulses and produces a reversible loss of sensation.
Cocaine is a white powder. It can be snorted up the nose or mixed with water and injected with a needle. Cocaine can also be made into small white rocks, called crack. Crack is smoked in a small glass pipe.
Cocaine speeds up your whole body. You may feel full of energy, happy, and excited. But then your mood can change. You can become angry, nervous, and afraid that someone's out to get you. You might do things that make no sense. After the "high" of the cocaine wears off, you can "crash" and feel tired and sad for days. You also get a strong craving to take the drug again to try to feel better.
No matter how cocaine is taken, it is dangerous. Some of the most common serious problems include heart attack and stroke. You are also at risk for HIV/AIDS and hepatitis, from sharing needles or having unsafe sex. Cocaine is more dangerous when combined with other drugs or alcohol.
It is easy to lose control over cocaine use and become addicted. Then, even if you get treatment, it can be hard to stay off the drug. People who stopped using cocaine can still feel strong cravings for the drug, sometimes even years later.
NIH: National Institute on Drug Abuse
CSP Definition: alkaloid ester extracted from the leaves of plants including coca; has powerful central nervous system effects similar to the amphetamines and is a drug of abuse; acts by multiple mechanisms on brain catecholaminergic neurons; the mechanism of its reinforcing effects is thought to involve inhibition of dopamine uptake; it is also a local anesthetic and vasoconstrictor and is clinically used for that purpose.
MSH Definition: An alkaloid ester extracted from the leaves of plants including coca. It is a local anesthetic and vasoconstrictor and is clinically used for that purpose, particularly in the eye, ear, nose, and throat. It also has powerful central nervous system effects similar to the amphetamines and is a drug of abuse. Cocaine, like amphetamines, acts by multiple mechanisms on brain catecholaminergic neurons; the mechanism of its reinforcing effects is thought to involve inhibition of dopamine uptake.
Synonyms & Abbreviations: (see Synonym Details)
|2-Methyl-3beta-hydroxy-1alphah,5alphah-tropane-2beta-carboxylate benzoate (ester)|
|8-Azabicyclo(3.2.1)octane-2-carboxylic acid, 3-(benzoyloxy)-8-methyl-, methyl ester, (1R-(exo,exo))-|
|[1R-(Exo,exo)]-3-(benzoyloxy)-8-methyl-8-azabicyclo[3.2.1]octane-2-carboxylic acid, methyl ester|
|cocaine in any form|
|Product containing cocaine (medicinal product)|
|Product containing cocaine|
External Source Codes:
|NCI Thesaurus Code||C80153 (see NCI Thesaurus info)|
|CAS Registry Number||50-36-2 (see NLM ChemIDplus info)|
|FDA UNII Code||I5Y540LHVR|
|AN||cocaine derivatives = COCAINE /analogs;CRACK COCAINE is available; cocaine addiction = COCAINE-RELATED DISORDERS||MSH|
|AQL||AA AD AE AG AI AN BI BL CF CH CL CS CT EC GE HI IM IP ME PD PK PO RE SD SE ST TO TU UR||MSH|
|HN||COCAINE DERIVATIVES was see under COCAINE 1975-77; was see under TROPANES 1969-74||MSH|
|MESH_DEFINITION||An alkaloid ester extracted from the leaves of plants including coca. It is a local anesthetic and vasoconstrictor and is clinically used for that purpose, particularly in the eye, ear, nose, and throat. It also has powerful central nervous system effects similar to the amphetamines and is a drug of abuse. Cocaine, like amphetamines, acts by multiple mechanisms on brain catecholaminergic neurons; the mechanism of its reinforcing effects is thought to involve inhibition of dopamine uptake.||NDFRT|
|MP_PRIMARY_INSTITUTE_URL||National Institute on Drug Abuse http://www.nida.nih.gov/||MEDLINEPLUS|
|OL||use COCAINE/analogs & derivatives to search COCAINE DERIVATIVES 1975-77; use TROPANES 1969-74||MSH|
|PM||COCAINE DERIVATIVES was see under COCAINE 1975-77; was see under TROPANES 1969-74||MSH|
|SOS||An alkaloid obtained from the coca bush or synthesized from ecgonine or its derivatives. It is a powerful central nervous system stimulant used for euphoria or wakefulness. Effects include euphoria, restlessness, excitement, and a feeling of well-being. Users view it as a social drug that facilitates interaction and as an ideal drug in terms of convenience of use, bulk, effects, safety, minimal side effects, and no aftereffects. As with the amphetamines, cocaine users often go on runs (repeated administration of cocaine) and chronic heavy use can lead to a "paranoid syndrome" in which the user is highly suspicious or nervous.||AOD|
|SOS||An alkaloid refined from the coca plant that is a short-acting but powerful stimulant pharmacologically similar to the amphetamines. Isolated in the 1850s, it was hailed by many as a wonder drug. Freud recommended its use for the treatment of morphine and alcohol dependence, asthma, digestive disorders, depression, and fatigue. It was also widely valued and used as a local anesthetic and nerve-blocking agent. Now stronger anesthetics with fewer stimulant side effects have virtually eliminated its medical usefulness, including such synthetic cocaine like compounds as procaine (Novocain). By the late 19th century cocaine had also achieved considerable popularity in the United States as a general tonic and addiction cure; its exhilarating properties made it a favorite ingredient of medicine, soda pop (including Coca-Cola), and wine (vin mariani). In 1941 its use was controlled by the Harrison Narcotic Act, where it was incorrectly classified as a narcotic. Classification: stimulants--primary. See also psychosis, cocaine. Slang names: Corrine, coke, Bernice, flake, star dust, snow. See also appendix B. (RIS 27:203--78 entries; anesthetic users, RIS 27:304--8 entries)||AOD|
|SOS||Cocaine use disorders (F14) are among the psychoactive substance use disorders in ICD-10.||AOD|
|SOS||Repeated use produces dependence. Cocaine ("coke") is often sold as white, translucent, crystalline flakes or powder ("snuff," "snow"), frequently adulterated with various sugars or local anesthetics. The powder is sniffed ("snorting"), producing effects in 1 to 3 minutes; they last for about 30 minutes. Combined opioid and cocaine users are likely to inject cocaine intravenously. Cocaine may be ingested orally, often with alcohol. "Freebasing" refers to increasing the potency of cocaine by extracting pure cocaine alkaloid, the free base, and then inhaling the heated vapor through a cigarette or water pipe. Extraction of the free base requires heating an aqueous solution of the cocaine salt with an alkali (such as baking soda), followed by extraction of the free base into an organic solvent such as ether, acetone, or hexane. The procedure is dangerous because the mixture is explosive and highly flammable. "Crack" or "rock" is alkaloidal cocaine (free base) that may contain crystals of sodium chloride (salt). It is beige in color. Crack refers to the crackling sound the crystals make when they are heated. An intense "high" appears 4 to 6 seconds after crack is inhaled. An early feeling of elation or disappearance of anxiety is experienced, together with exaggerated feelings of confidence and self-esteem. It also interferes with judgment, so the user is likely to perform irresponsible, illegal, or dangerous activities without regard for consequences. Speech is pressured and may become disjointed and incoherent. Pleasurable effects last only 5 to 7 minutes. Mood then rapidly descends into dysphoria, and the user is compelled to repeat the process in order to regain the exhilaration and euphoria of the "high." Overdosage appears to be more frequent with crack than with other forms of cocaine. Repeated administration of cocaine, known as a "run," is typically followed when use is discontinued, by the "crash.". The "crash" may be viewed as a withdrawal syndrome in which elation gives way to apprehension, profound depression, sleepiness, and inertia. Acute toxic reactions may occur in both the naive experimenter and the chronic abuser of cocaine. They include a panic-like delirium, hyperpyrexia, hypertension (sometimes with subdural or subarachnoid hemorrhage), cardiac arrhythmias, myocardial infarct, cardiovascular collapse, seizures, status epilepticus, and death. Other neuropsychiatric sequelae include a psychotic syndrome with paranoid delusions, auditory and visual hallucinations, and ideas of reference. "Snow lights" is the term used to describe hallucinations of illusions resembling the twinkling sunlight on frozen snow. Teratogenic effects have been described, including abnormalities of the urinary tract and limb deformities.||AOD|
|TH||FDA SRS (2014)||MSH|
Additional Concept Data: (none)